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How Windmills as Wide as Jumbo Jets Are Making Clean Energy Mainstream


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.viewport-large-30 #main,
.viewport-medium-10 #main,
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#story > .interactive-header,
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.rad-cover .rad-headline,
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.rad-cover .rad-headline,
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.rad-cover .rad-headline
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.rad-cover .rad-headline
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.rad-cover .rad-summary
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.rad-cover .rad-byline-pubdate
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.rad-cover .rad-byline a:visited
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.rad-cover .rad-social:last-child:after,
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.rad-cover .rad-byline-pubdate:last-child:after
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.rad-cover .rad-lqip
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.rad-translation-links
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.rad-translation-links a:last-of-type
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@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-translation-links a
display: inline-block;
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.rad-translation-links a:after
content: “”;
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.rad-translation-links a:last-child
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.rad-cover.full-bleed,
.rad-cover.full-bleed-cover
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position: absolute;
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padding: 50px;
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max-width: calc(100% – 100px);
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color: #ffffff;

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margin-bottom: 0;

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margin: 15px 0 0;

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color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);

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height: 20px;
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opacity: 0.5;

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border-bottom: 1px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);

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height: 100vh;
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border-bottom: 1px solid #e2e2e2;
margin-bottom: 150px;

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margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

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margin-bottom: 24px;
padding-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body .header
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .header
margin-bottom: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body .header
padding-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .header
padding-top: 42px;

.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
font-family: georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
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color: #666666;
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margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
font-size: 19px;
line-height: 24px;
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 28px;
margin-bottom: 14px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
margin-top: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
margin-top: 14px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote
margin-bottom: 28px;

.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p
font-family: georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
-webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;
font-size: 18px;
line-height: 24px;
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p
font-size: 19px;
line-height: 24px;
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 28px;
margin-bottom: 14px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p
margin-bottom: 14px;

.rad-story-body blockquote.blockquote p::last-child
margin-bottom: 0;

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font-weight: 100;
font-size: 42px;

.rad-story-body h4.header
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line-height: 1.1;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body h4.header
font-size: 28px;

.rad-story-body h5.header
font-size: 18px;
font-weight: 700;
line-height: 1.1;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body h5.header
font-size: 24px;

.rad-story-body h6.header-label
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
text-transform: uppercase;
letter-spacing: 0.1rem;
font-size: 15px;
font-weight: 700;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body h6.header-label
font-size: 18px;

.rad-story-body .rule–story
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;
border: none;
border-top: 1px solid #e2e2e2;
margin-top: 36px;
max-width: 300px;
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story
margin-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story
margin-top: 42px;

.rad-story-body .rule–story + p.paragraph
margin-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story + p.paragraph
margin-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .rule–story + p.paragraph
margin-top: 42px;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph
font-family: georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
-webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;
font-size: 18px;
line-height: 24px;
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph
font-size: 19px;
line-height: 24px;
margin-bottom: 12px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 28px;
margin-bottom: 14px;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph:last-child
margin-bottom: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph:last-child
margin-bottom: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph:last-child
margin-bottom: 42px;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph a
color: #326891;
position: relative;
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0) 50%, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0.4) 50%);
background-repeat: repeat-x;
background-size: 2px 2px;
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);
text-decoration: none;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph a:hover
text-shadow: 3px 1px 0 #ffffff, -3px 1px 0 #ffffff, 0 1px 0 #ffffff;
text-decoration: none;
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0) 50%, #326891 50%);

.rad-story-body p.paragraph a:active
top: 1px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph a
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);

.rad-story-body p.paragraph a:hover
text-shadow: 3px 1px 0 #ffffff, -3px 1px 0 #ffffff, 0 1px 0 #ffffff, 4px 1px 0 #ffffff, -4px 1px 0 #ffffff;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph a
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);

.rad-story-body p.paragraph a:hover
text-shadow: 3px 2px 0 #ffffff, -3px 2px 0 #ffffff, 0 2px 0 #ffffff, 4px 2px 0 #ffffff, -4px 2px 0 #ffffff;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph.paragraph-detail
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 14px;
color: #999999;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph.paragraph-detail
font-size: 16px;

.rad-story-body p.paragraph.paragraph-summary
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 16px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body p.paragraph.paragraph-summary
font-size: 21px;

.rad-story-body .dropcap
float: left;
display: block;
position: relative;
font-family: “nyt-cheltenham”, georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
font-weight: 200;
font-size: 5.2rem;
line-height: 1;
height: 0.8em;
margin-right: 10px;
overflow: hidden;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-story-body .dropcap
font-weight: 100;
font-size: 5.2rem;
height: 0.8em;
margin-right: 15px;
-webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-story-body .dropcap
font-size: 5.7rem;

.rad-lead-in
font-family: “nyt-cheltenham-sh”, georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
text-transform: uppercase;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;
font-weight: 600;
font-size: 90%;
-webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased;
text-rendering: optimizeLegibility;
-webkit-font-feature-settings: “kern”;
-moz-font-feature-settings: “kern”;
font-feature-settings: “kern”;

.rad-corrections
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-corrections
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.rad-corrections
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-corrections
padding: 0;

.rad-corrections:before
width: 100px;

.rad-corrections p
font-family: georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
font-size: 15px;
line-height: 24px;

.rad-corrections p
font-style: italic;

.rad-corrections h5
font-size: 15px;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-weight: 400;
color: #cccccc;
margin-bottom: 0.5em;
margin-top: 2em;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-corrections h5
font-size: 15px;

.rad-corrections h5 strong
font-weight: bold;
color: #000000;
padding-right: 10px;

.rad-article-credits,
.interactive-credit
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-article-credits,
.interactive-credit
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.rad-article-credits,
.interactive-credit
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-article-credits,
.interactive-credit
padding: 0;

.rad-article-credits:before,
.interactive-credit:before
width: 100px;

.rad-article-credits p,
.interactive-credit p
color: #999999;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 15px;
margin-bottom: 15px;
line-height: 1.3;

.rad-article-credits:before
display: block;
content: ‘ ‘;
width: 100px;
height: 1px;
background-color: #e2e2e2;
margin-top: 20px;
margin-bottom: 20px;

.media.photo,
.media.video
margin: 0 auto;
padding-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.photo,
.media.video
padding-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo,
.media.video
padding-bottom: 28px;

.media.photo .rad-media-wrapper,
.media.video .rad-media-wrapper
padding: 0 20px;

.full_bleed.media.photo .rad-media-wrapper,
.full_bleed.media.video .rad-media-wrapper,
.jumbo.media.photo .rad-media-wrapper,
.jumbo.media.video .rad-media-wrapper
padding: 0;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.media.photo .rad-media-wrapper,
.media.video .rad-media-wrapper
padding: 0;

.media.photo .image,
.media.video .image
padding: 0;
margin-bottom: 0;
overflow: hidden;
box-sizing: border-box;

.media.photo.large,
.media.video.large
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo.large,
.media.video.large
max-width: 630px;

.media.photo.jumbo,
.media.video.jumbo
max-width: 1200px;

.media.photo.full_bleed,
.media.video.full_bleed
max-width: 2000px;

.media.photo.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.photo.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper
padding-left: 20px;
padding-right: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.photo.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.photo.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper
padding-left: 0;
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.jumbo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.photo.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.full_bleed .rad-caption-wrapper
max-width: 630px;

.paragraph + .media.photo,
.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.paragraph + .media.photo,
.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.paragraph + .media.photo,
.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 28px;

.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper
display: block;
margin: 0 auto;
padding: 5px 0 0;
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.small.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.small.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper
padding-right: 0;
padding-left: 0;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.full_bleed.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.full_bleed.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper,
.jumbo.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.jumbo.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper,
.large.media.photo .rad-caption-wrapper,
.large.media.video .rad-caption-wrapper
box-sizing: border-box;

.media.photo .rad-caption-text,
.media.video .rad-caption-text
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
color: #666666;
font-size: 14px;
line-height: 17px;
margin-bottom: 8.5px;

.media.photo .rad-credit,
.media.video .rad-credit
clear: both;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
color: #999999;
font-size: 13px;
line-height: 17px;
margin-bottom: 8.5px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.photo .rad-credit,
.media.video .rad-credit
padding: 0;

.full_bleed.media.photo .rad-credit,
.full_bleed.media.video .rad-credit,
.jumbo .media.photo .rad-credit,
.jumbo .media.video .rad-credit
padding-right: 3px;

.image img.rad-lazy
width: 100%;
opacity: 0.3;
transition: opacity 0.5s;
margin-bottom: 0;
height: 0;

.image img.rad-lazy.ll-loaded
height: auto;
opacity: 1;
z-index: 3;
position: relative;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.video.small .rad-caption-wrapper
box-sizing: border-box;
padding-right: 200px;

.media.photo.small
margin: 0 auto;
margin-top: 24px;
margin-bottom: 24px;
padding: 0;
position: relative;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.photo.small
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo.small
margin-top: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.photo.small
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.photo.small
margin-bottom: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.media.photo.small
margin: 0 auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 1005px)
.media.photo.small
max-width: 1200px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1335px)
.media.photo.small
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.media.photo.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.media.photo.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 33.33333333%;
position: relative;
float: right;
margin: 7px 20px 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 960px)
.media.photo.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.media.photo.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 300px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1335px)
.media.photo.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.media.photo.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 50%;
margin: 0 calc(-50% – 2em) 2rem 2rem;

.rad-diptych
max-width: 1240px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;
margin-bottom: 0;
padding-top: 24px;
overflow: hidden;
clear: both;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-diptych
padding-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-diptych
padding-top: 28px;

.rad-diptych .media.video .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.photo .rad-media-wrapper
padding: 0;

.rad-diptych .media.photo,
.rad-diptych .media.video
max-width: 100%;

.rad-diptych .media.photo .rad-caption-text,
.rad-diptych .media.video .rad-caption-text,
.rad-diptych .media.photo .rad-credit,
.rad-diptych .media.video .rad-credit
padding-left: 0;
padding-right: 0;

.rad-diptych .media.video .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.photo .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper
padding: 5px 0 0;
max-width: 600px;
margin: 0;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-diptych .media.video .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.photo .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-diptych
margin: 0 auto;
margin-top: 24px;

.rad-diptych .media.photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large
width: 50%;
box-sizing: border-box;
float: left;
margin: 0;
margin-bottom: 36px;
padding: 0 10px 0 20px;

.rad-diptych .media.photo.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large .rad-media-wrapper
width: 100% !important;
margin: 0 !important;

.rad-diptych .media.photo.small + .photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large + .photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small + .photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large + .photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.small + .photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large + .photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small + .photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large + .photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.small + .video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large + .video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small + .video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large + .video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.small + .video.large,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large + .video.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small + .video.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large + .video.large
padding-left: 10px;
float: right;
padding-right: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px) and screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-diptych
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px) and screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-diptych
margin-top: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px) and screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-diptych .media.photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large
margin-bottom: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px) and screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-diptych .media.photo.small,
.rad-diptych .media.photo.large,
.rad-diptych .media.video.small,
.rad-diptych .media.video.large
margin-bottom: 42px;

.media.video
margin: 0 auto;
padding-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.media.video
padding-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.video
padding-bottom: 28px;

.media.video.small
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.video.small
max-width: 630px;

.media.video.large
max-width: 1200px;

.media.video.jumbo
max-width: 2000px;

.media.video.small .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.large .rad-caption-wrapper
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.media.video.small .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.large .rad-caption-wrapper
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.media.video.small .rad-caption-wrapper,
.media.video.large .rad-caption-wrapper
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.paragraph + .media.video
margin-top: 28px;

.media.video .rad-credit
display: block;
margin-top: 0;
padding: 0 3px 0 0;

.rad-spinner
position: absolute;
top: 50%;
left: 50%;
z-index: 2;
transform: translate3d(-50%, -50%, 0);

.rad-spinner:after
content: ”;
display: block;
box-sizing: border-box;
width: 40px;
height: 40px;
border-radius: 100%;
border: 5px solid rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.2);
border-top-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5);
animation: spin 1s infinite linear;

@keyframes spin
100%
transform: rotate(360deg);

.rad-interactive
max-width: 2000px;
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;
margin-bottom: 2px;
margin-top: 24px;
position: relative;
overflow: hidden;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive
margin-top: 28px;

.rad-interactive .rad-interactive-wrapper
padding: 15px 0;
border-top: 1px solid #e2e2e2;
border-bottom: 1px solid #e2e2e2;
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive .rad-interactive-wrapper
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive .rad-interactive-wrapper
margin-bottom: 28px;

.rad-interactive.small
overflow: visible;
margin: 0 auto;
margin-top: 24px;
margin-bottom: 24px;
padding: 0;
position: relative;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive.small
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive.small
margin-top: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive.small
margin-bottom: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive.small
margin-bottom: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.rad-interactive.small
margin: 0 auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 1005px)
.rad-interactive.small
max-width: 1200px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1335px)
.rad-interactive.small
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 600px)
.rad-interactive.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-interactive.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 33.33333333%;
position: relative;
float: right;
margin: 7px 20px 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 960px)
.rad-interactive.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-interactive.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 300px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1335px)
.rad-interactive.small .rad-media-wrapper,
.rad-interactive.small .rad-interactive-wrapper
width: 50%;
margin: 0 calc(-50% – 2em) 2rem 2rem;

.rad-interactive.large
max-width: 600px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive.large
max-width: 630px;

.rad-interactive.jumbo
max-width: 1200px;

.rad-interactive.full_bleed
margin: 0 auto;
max-width: 100%;

.rad-interactive.full_bleed .rad-interactive-wrapper
border: none;
padding: 0;

.rad-interactive.small,
.rad-interactive.large,
.rad-interactive.jumbo
padding: 0 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive.small,
.rad-interactive.large,
.rad-interactive.jumbo
padding: 0;

.rad-interactive img
margin-bottom: 0;

.rad-interactive .interactive-summary
font-family: “nyt-cheltenham-sh”, georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
font-size: 13px;
line-height: 1.4;
color: #666666;
padding-top: 5px;

.rad-interactive .credit,
.rad-interactive .notes,
.rad-interactive .source
display: block;
padding: 0 3px;
margin-top: 5px;
margin-bottom: 0;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
color: #999999;
font-size: 13px;
line-height: 17px;
margin-bottom: 8.5px;

.rad-interactive + .media.photo
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive + .media.photo
margin-top: 24px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-interactive + .media.photo
margin-top: 28px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-interactive + .media.photo
margin-top: 0;

.rad-slideshow
margin: 2em 0;
width: 100%;
overflow: hidden;

.rad-slideshow-item
position: relative;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption
width: 100%;
padding: 50vh 0;

.rad-slideshow-item:first-child .rad-caption
padding-top: 100vh;

.rad-slideshow-item:last-child .rad-caption
padding-bottom: 100vh;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper
position: relative;
left: 50%;
transform: translate(-50%, 0);
width: 600px;
max-width: calc(100% – 40px);
z-index: 20;
background: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.95);
box-sizing: border-box;
padding: 30px;
transition: opacity 1s;
opacity: 0;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper .rad-caption-text
color: #000000;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 16px;
line-height: 1.2;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper .rad-credit
display: block;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 12px;
margin-top: 10px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper .rad-caption-text
font-size: 20px;
font-weight: 300;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper .rad-credit
font-size: 14px;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper
height: 100vh;
width: 100vw;
display: block;
padding: 0;
opacity: 0;
position: absolute;
top: 0;
left: 0;
overflow: hidden;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper img,
.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper video
width: 100% !important;
height: auto !important;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper .fit-object-wrapper
position: absolute;
width: 100%;
height: 100%;

.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper .fit-object-wrapper img,
.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper .fit-object-wrapper video
width: 100% !important;
height: auto !important;

.active.rad-slideshow-item .rad-asset-wrapper
opacity: 1;
visibility: visible;

.rad-slideshow-item:last-child .rad-asset-wrapper
position: absolute;
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
right: 0;
top: auto;

.rad-slideshow-item.interactive .rad-asset-wrapper .ai2html
width: 100vw;
height: 100vh;
position: relative;

.rad-slideshow-item.interactive .rad-asset-wrapper .ai2html > div
position: absolute;
top: 50%;
transform: translateY(-50%);

.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed .rad-caption .rad-caption-wrapper
opacity: 1;

.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed div.rad-asset-wrapper
background: #000;
opacity: 0;
visibility: hidden;
position: fixed;
top: 0;
left: 0;
transition: opacity 0s 0s, visibility 0s 0s;
z-index: 1;
display: none;

.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed .rad-slideshow-item.active div.rad-asset-wrapper,
.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed .rad-slideshow-item.active-adjacent div.rad-asset-wrapper
display: block;
transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0);
-webkit-backface-visibility: hidden;

.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed .rad-slideshow-item.active-adjacent div.rad-asset-wrapper
transition: opacity 0s 1s, visibility 0s 1s;

.rad-slideshow.lightbox-fixed .rad-slideshow-item.active div.rad-asset-wrapper
opacity: 1;
visibility: visible;
transition: opacity 1s 0s, visibility 1s 0s;
z-index: 2;

.has-fixed-lightbox #masthead
pointer-events: none;

.rad-series-box
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;
padding-top: 48px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-series-box
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.rad-series-box
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-series-box
padding-top: 48px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-series-box
padding-top: 56px;

.rad-series-box h2
font-weight: 700;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 15px;
line-height: 1.1;
margin-bottom: 20px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-series-box h2
font-size: 17px;

.rad-series-links
color: #000000;

.rad-series-links .rad-caption
display: none;

.rad-series-links a
color: #000000;
display: table;
width: 100%;
margin-bottom: 1rem;

.rad-series-links a:hover
text-decoration: none;

.has-no-touch .rad-series-links a:hover h3
border-bottom: 2px solid #cccccc;
text-shadow: 0 2px 0 #fff;

.rad-series-links .promo-info,
.rad-series-links .promo-image
display: table-cell;
vertical-align: middle;

.rad-series-links .promo-info
padding: 0 0 0 20px;

.rad-series-links h3
display: inline;
font-family: “nyt-cheltenham-sh”, georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
font-size: 17px;
font-weight: 400;
line-height: 1.1;
margin-right: 5px;

@media screen and (min-width: 769px)
.rad-series-links h3
font-family: “nyt-cheltenham”, georgia, “times new roman”, times, serif;
font-size: 21px;
line-height: 1.2;

.rad-series-links .pubdate
display: inline;
color: #cccccc;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-size: 12px;
text-transform: uppercase;
letter-spacing: 0.02em;
white-space: nowrap;

.rad-series-links .promo-image
width: 33%;
margin: 0;
padding: 0;

.rad-series-links .promo-image:empty:after
display: block;
content: ‘ ‘;
width: 100%;
padding-bottom: 66.667%;

.rad-series-links .media.photo
margin: 0;
padding: 0;

.rad-series-links .media.photo .rad-media-wrapper
margin: 0;
padding: 0;

#story
opacity: 1;
position: relative;
transform: none;
transition: all 0.45s ease-in-out;

.rad-fade #story
transform: translateY(0);
opacity: 0;

.rad-unload #story
transform: translateY(-60px);

#masthead
position: relative;
opacity: 1;
transform: translateY(0);
transition: transform 0.45s ease-in-out;

.rad-fade #masthead
opacity: 0 !important;
transform: translateY(0);
transition: opacity 0.45s ease-in-out;

.rad-unload #masthead
opacity: 0;
transform: translateY(-60px);
transition: all 0.45s ease-in-out;

#related-coverage,
.viewport-medium #related-coverage
margin-top: 48px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
#related-coverage,
.viewport-medium #related-coverage
margin-top: 48px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
#related-coverage,
.viewport-medium #related-coverage
margin-top: 56px;

.rad-article + .rad-article
border-top: 2px solid #e2e2e2;
transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0);
transition: transform 0.4s ease-in;

.rad-article + .rad-article.is-loaded
transform: none;

.rad-article .rad-series-link-wrapper
max-width: 600px;
margin-left: 20px;
margin-right: 20px;
margin-bottom: 5rem;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-article .rad-series-link-wrapper
max-width: 630px;

@media screen and (min-width: 640px)
.rad-article .rad-series-link-wrapper
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;

.rad-article .rad-series-link
color: #326891;
position: relative;
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0) 50%, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0.4) 50%);
background-repeat: repeat-x;
background-size: 2px 2px;
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);
text-decoration: none;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
font-weight: bold;
opacity: 1;
transition: opacity 0.4s ease-in;

.rad-article .rad-series-link:hover
text-shadow: 3px 1px 0 #ffffff, -3px 1px 0 #ffffff, 0 1px 0 #ffffff;
text-decoration: none;
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(50, 104, 145, 0) 50%, #326891 50%);

.rad-article .rad-series-link:active
top: 1px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-article .rad-series-link
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);

.rad-article .rad-series-link:hover
text-shadow: 3px 1px 0 #ffffff, -3px 1px 0 #ffffff, 0 1px 0 #ffffff, 4px 1px 0 #ffffff, -4px 1px 0 #ffffff;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-article .rad-series-link
background-position: 0 calc(100% – 1px);

.rad-article .rad-series-link:hover
text-shadow: 3px 2px 0 #ffffff, -3px 2px 0 #ffffff, 0 2px 0 #ffffff, 4px 2px 0 #ffffff, -4px 2px 0 #ffffff;

.rad-article.article-active .rad-series-link,
.rad-article.article-loading .rad-series-link
opacity: 0;
pointer-events: none;

.rad-article.article-active + .rad-article
transform: translate3d(0, 300px, 0);

.rad-article.article-active.is-loaded + .rad-article
transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0);

.rad-article .rad-story-body-inner
transition: all 0.4s ease-in;
opacity: 0;
max-height: 0;
overflow: hidden;

.rad-article.article-active .rad-story-body-inner
opacity: 1;
max-height: 100%;

.rad-article .rad-story-body-mask
display: block;
margin-top: -150px;
width: 100%;
height: 150px;
background: linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(255, 255, 255, 0) 0%, rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5) 10%, #ffffff 100%);
opacity: 1;
transition: opacity 0.3s ease-in;
position: relative;
z-index: 10;

.rad-story-body-mask .rad-spinner:after
border-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);
border-top-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.7);
height: 30px;
width: 30px;
border-width: 3px;
box-shadow: 0 0 3px #fff;

.rad-story-body-mask .rad-spinner
opacity: 0;
transition: opacity 0.4s ease-in;

.article-loading .rad-story-body-mask .rad-spinner
opacity: 1;

.rad-article.article-active .rad-story-body-mask
pointer-events: none;
opacity: 0;

.rad-social .sharetool
display: inline-block;

.rad-social .sharetool a
width: 32px;
height: 32px;
display: inline-block;
padding: 0;
border-radius: 20px;
color: white !important;
line-height: 1.2 !important;
background-size: contain;
background-repeat: no-repeat;

.rad-social .sharetool a .sharetool-text
visibility: hidden;

.rad-social .sharetool a[data-share=”twitter”]
background-image: url(‘data:image/svg+xml;base64,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’);

.rad-social .sharetool a[data-share=”twitter”]:hover
background-image: url(‘data:image/svg+xml;base64,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’);

.rad-social .sharetool a[data-share=”facebook”]
background-image: url(‘data:image/svg+xml;base64,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’);

.rad-social .sharetool a[data-share=”facebook”]:hover
background-image: url(‘data:image/svg+xml;base64,PD94bWwgdmVyc2lvbj0iMS4wIiBlbmNvZGluZz0iVVRGLTgiPz4KPHN2ZyB3aWR0aD0iMzJweCIgaGVpZ2h0PSIzMnB4IiB2aWV3Qm94PSIwIDAgMzIgMzIiIHZlcnNpb249IjEuMSIgeG1sbnM9Imh0dHA6Ly93d3cudzMub3JnLzIwMDAvc3ZnIiB4bWxuczp4bGluaz0iaHR0cDovL3d3dy53My5vcmcvMTk5OS94bGluayI+CiAgICA8IS0tIEdlbmVyYXRvcjogU2tldGNoIDMuOC4zICgyOTgwMikgLSBodHRwOi8vd3d3LmJvaGVtaWFuY29kaW5nLmNvbS9za2V0Y2ggLS0+CiAgICA8dGl0bGU+ZmFjZWJvb2tfaG92ZXI8L3RpdGxlPgogICAgPGRlc2M+Q3JlYXRlZCB3aXRoIFNrZXRjaC48L2Rlc2M+CiAgICA8ZGVmcz48L2RlZnM+CiAgICA8ZyBpZD0iUGFnZS0xIiBzdHJva2U9Im5vbmUiIHN0cm9rZS13aWR0aD0iMSIgZmlsbD0ibm9uZSIgZmlsbC1ydWxlPSJldmVub2RkIj4KICAgICAgICA8ZyBpZD0ic3ByaXRlLW5vLXJlcGVhdCIgdHJhbnNmb3JtPSJ0cmFuc2xhdGUoMC4wMDAwMDAsIC01NC4wMDAwMDApIj4KICAgICAgICAgICAgPGcgaWQ9ImZhY2Vib29rX2hvdmVyIiB0cmFuc2Zvcm09InRyYW5zbGF0ZSgwLjAwMDAwMCwgNTQuMDAwMDAwKSI+CiAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICA8ZyBpZD0iRmFjZWJvb2stbmF0aXZlIj4KICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICA8cGF0aCBkPSJNMC4wNTkyNDA3NDM2LDE2IEMwLjA1OTI0MDc0MzYsNy4xNjM0NDM1NyA3LjAzOTE0OTc0LDAgMTUuNjQ5MzA0OCwwIEMyNC4yNTk0NTk4LDAgMzEuMjM5MzY4OCw3LjE2MzQ0MzU3IDMxLjIzOTM2ODgsMTYgQzMxLjIzOTM2ODgsMjQuODM2NTU2NCAyNC4yNTk0NTk4LDMyIDE1LjY0OTMwNDgsMzIgQzcuMDM5MTQ5NzQsMzIgMC4wNTkyNDA3NDM2LDI0LjgzNjU1NjQgMC4wNTkyNDA3NDM2LDE2IEwwLjA1OTI0MDc0MzYsMTYgWiIgaWQ9IlNoYXBlIiBmaWxsPSIjM0I1OTk4Ij48L3BhdGg+CiAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgPHBhdGggZD0iTTE2Ljk1MjkzMzEsMjQuNzAzODI1NiBMMTYuOTUyOTMzMSwxNS45OTg5ODA4IEwxOS4yOTA5MDcyLDE1Ljk5ODk4MDggTDE5LjYwMDczOTMsMTIuOTk5MjQzMSBMMTYuOTUyOTMzMSwxMi45OTkyNDMxIEwxNi45NTY5MDUzLDExLjQ5Nzg0NTUgQzE2Ljk1NjkwNTMsMTAuNzE1NDY3NyAxNy4wMjkyMzI1LDEwLjI5NjI1MTkgMTguMTIyNTgyMiwxMC4yOTYyNTE5IEwxOS41ODQxODg0LDEwLjI5NjI1MTkgTDE5LjU4NDE4ODQsNy4yOTYxNzQ0MyBMMTcuMjQ1ODgzMyw3LjI5NjE3NDQzIEMxNC40MzcyMDI3LDcuMjk2MTc0NDMgMTMuNDQ4NjIsOC43NTEzNjk5NSAxMy40NDg2MiwxMS4xOTg1NTEyIEwxMy40NDg2MiwxMi45OTk1ODI5IEwxMS42OTc4NzAzLDEyLjk5OTU4MjkgTDExLjY5Nzg3MDMsMTUuOTk5MzIwNiBMMTMuNDQ4NjIsMTUuOTk5MzIwNiBMMTMuNDQ4NjIsMjQuNzAzODI1NiBMMTYuOTUyOTMzMSwyNC43MDM4MjU2IEwxNi45NTI5MzMxLDI0LjcwMzgyNTYgWiIgaWQ9IlNoYXBlIiBmaWxsPSIjRkZGRkZGIj48L3BhdGg+CiAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICA8L2c+CiAgICAgICAgICAgIDwvZz4KICAgICAgICA8L2c+CiAgICA8L2c+Cjwvc3ZnPg==’);

.rad-social .sharetool + .sharetool a
margin-left: 5px;

.rad-social .sharetools-menu
margin: 15px 0;

.ad.top-ad
border-color: transparent;

.rad-ad-wrapper
margin: 0 auto;
margin-top: 36px;
margin-bottom: 48px;
text-align: center;
background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05);

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-ad-wrapper
margin-top: 36px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-ad-wrapper
margin-top: 42px;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-ad-wrapper
margin-bottom: 48px;

@media screen and (min-width: 1155px)
.rad-ad-wrapper
margin-bottom: 56px;

.rad-ad-wrapper.has-border
padding: 30px 0;
border-color: #e2e2e2;
border-style: solid;
border-width: 1px 0;

.rad-ad-wrapper .ad
margin: 30px auto 50px;

.rad-ad-wrapper .ad:before
display: block;
content: ‘Advertisement’;
text-transform: uppercase;
font-family: “nyt-franklin”, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;
color: #cccccc;
font-size: 10px;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;
text-align: center;
width: 100%;
padding-bottom: 5px;

.rad-ad-wrapper:last-child
border-width: 0;
margin: 40px 20px;
padding: 30px 0;

@media screen and (min-width: 720px)
.rad-ad-wrapper:last-child
max-width: 705px;
margin: 40px auto 0;

@media screen and (min-width: 960px)
.rad-ad-wrapper:last-child
max-width: 945px;

.rad-ad-wrapper .rad-ad
display: inline-block;

@media print
*
background: #fff !important;

.quick-navigation,
#masthead .story-meta,
.user-tools,
.search-flyout-panel,
.notification-modals,
.announcments,
#navigation,
#mobile-navigation,
.rad-ad-wrapper,
figure,
.rad-interactive,
.media.video,
.media.photo,
#footer,
#related-coverage,
.visually-hidden,
#page-footer li,
.ad,
.last-nav,
.rad-cover-container,
.cover-caption,
.cover-replay,
.nyt-logo,
.location-header-wrapper img
display: none !important;

#page-footer ul
list-style: none;
margin: 0;
padding: 0;

#page-footer nav ul li:first-child
display: block !important;
text-align: center;

.masthead
padding-bottom: 0.2in;
margin-bottom: 0.2in;
margin-top: 45px;
position: static !important;

.masthead .branding
float: none !important;
display: block !important;
height: 20px;
margin: 0 auto;
text-align: center;

a
color: #000 !important;
text-decoration: none !important;

.rad-cover
height: auto !important;
margin-bottom: 0 !important;

.rad-cover .story-heading
color: #111 !important;
position: static !important;
text-align: center !important;
margin: 0 !important;

.rad-cover .interactive-header
position: static !important;
max-width: 600px;
margin: 0 auto !important;

.rad-cover .interactive-header p
position: static !important;
max-width: 600px;
color: #111 !important;

.rad-cover .interactive-header p br
display: none !important;

/* Project styles go here. */
.rad-cover .rad-summary
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Prototype wind turbines whirl at a testing site in Osterild, near the northern end of Denmark’s Jutland peninsula.By Rasmus Degnbol

OSTERILD, Denmark — At the northern end of Denmark’s Jutland peninsula, the wind blows so hard that rows of trees grow in one direction, like gnarled flags.

The relentless weather over this long strip of farmland, bogs and mud flats — and the real-world laboratory it provides — has given the country a leading role in transforming wind power into a viable source of clean energy.

After energy prices spiked during the 1973 oil crisis, entrepreneurs began building small turbines to sell here. “It started out as an interest in providing power for my parents’ farm,” said Henrik Stiesdal, who designed and built early prototypes with a blacksmith partner.

The initial windmills made by small operations had quality problems. Blades — then just 15 feet in length — would break or fall apart.

Now, they are giants, made by global players pulling off enormous feats of engineering.

Technicians reach the roof of these enormous wind turbines either via an internal elevator or, if the turbine is installed offshore, by helicopters that lower them into the fenced-off area.By Rasmus Degnbol

The biggest turbines in Osterild stretch more than 600 feet high. The largest rotor blades can reach 270 feet in length, comparable to the wingspan of an Airbus A380, the world’s largest commercial plane. The price tag: Up to 10 million euros, or more than $12 million.

The monstrous scale has helped turn wind into a mainstream form of power.

Larger turbines harness more wind, creating more energy. The biggest modern offshore turbines produce nearly 20 times as much power as ones developed three decades ago.

The larger the size, the lower the cost of generating energy. In parts of northern Europe, wind is now a major power source. It accounts for 4 percent of overall global energy supply, according to the International Energy Agency.

Blades for wind turbines lie outside a factory, waiting to be transported to wind farms.By Rasmus Degnbol

From those early Danish innovators, the industry has grown to dominated companies like Vestas Wind Systems and Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy.

The heart of the Siemens Gamesa business lies in Brande, a small Jutland town. It was there in the early 1980s that an entrepreneur named Peter Sorensen founded a wind business called Bonus with a couple of workers from his father’s irrigation company.

Siemens bought Bonus in 2004, and today, Brande is home to large engineering, training and maintenance hubs.

Staff sitting at consoles there can monitor wind farms around the globe. Often, when a problem shuts a turbine down, they can restart it electronically without needing to send a maintenance team.

Siemens Gamesa staff can check the performance of turbines around the world, and fix problems remotely, often from their desks in Brande.Carsten Snejbjerg for The New York Times

What began as the offshoot of an irrigation company in the Danish town of Brande is now a major industrial enterprise.Carsten Snejbjerg for The New York Times

At a cavernous workshop, technicians build custom turbine models and facilities for testing whether components are robust enough to last two decades or more. Inside, the towers are so big that elevators haul engineers up and down. Passengers must wear a climbing harness in case they fail.

At a Siemens Gamesa training center, technicians learning how to lower themselves with ropes and harnesses in case elevators inside the turbines fail.Carsten Snejbjerg for The New York Times

The rotors are connected to the windmill tower by a nacelle — a large enclosure the size of a trailer, with plenty of room inside to walk around.

Large enclosures, or nacelles, connect a wind turbine’s rotors and house its generator and controls.Carsten Snejbjerg for The New York Times

Looming over the top deck outside are the rotors. When they whirl, the whole column sways like a ship at sea.

A technician walks inside a prototype wind turbine in Osterild, Denmark. These test models help turbine makers boost performance.Carsten Snejbjerg for The New York Times

Making these blades is difficult and labor-intensive.

Teams of workers gradually fill a mold with strips of fiberglass interlaced with balsa wood for strength. They then inject resins and other chemicals into the container to form the hardened structure.

The huge size of the blades, and the complexity of the process, mean completely automating it does not make economic sense. Around 1,300 people work in the factory, and making a single blade can take about three days.

It’s a difficult balance for manufacturers to achieve both size and efficiency.

The largest blades already weigh around 30 metric tons, and making them longer adds to their weight, fast. Overweight blades might lead to turbines being worn down faster, and would put enormous stress on other components.

A group of workers prepare a mold for a wind turbine blade. They fill the mold with fiber glass cloth in a process that loosely resembles making a surfboard.By Rasmus Degnbol

Designers are testing tweaks to the shape and size of a blade, experimenting with the changes in wind tunnels or on computers. They have found that gluing various add-ons to the blades can substantially boost performance.

One fix — a combination of serrated teeth and combs that reduced the sound of the blades — was inspired by the wing feathers of owls.

Many of the big turbines that are designed at the facility will eventually make their way to the open water, where there is more space and the wind is more powerful.

Their huge components, difficult to transport on roadways, can be loaded at ports onto special boats, which take them to sprawling wind farms in the sea.

The enclosures which connect the blades to the wind turbine’s tower are readied to be loaded onto ships.By Rasmus Degnbol

The first offshore wind farm was built using a barge that had a crane mounted on a truck. Companies today have developed specialized vessels to carry these offshore turbines to their floating platforms.

They must contend with a variety of challenges, including the corrosive impact of saltwater. To service wind farms far from the shore, maintenance crews sometimes live on special ships.

It’s a complicated calculus.

In the early years, building an offshore wind farm was fantastically expensive, and governments offered generous subsidies to help the industry develop. But prices have been falling, and government support has “melted away,” according to Andreas Nauen, the chief executive of Siemens Gamesa’s offshore wind division.

Lower costs, though, have also made wind power more appealing elsewhere. Once mostly concentrated in northern Europe, Mr. Nauen is optimistic that new markets will emerge in Asia and the United States.

“This is real,” he said.

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